Illustration from MSS of Ramayana
Rama, Lakshmana and Visvamitra
Dated VS 1706 (1649 CE)
India is the home of the guru-shishya tradition where the pupils stay in the house of the teacher. The teacher is supposed to treat his students as his own sons. This tradition is prevalent even today especially in the fields of music and dance. Education involved not just the study of Vedic hymns, rituals and philosophy, but also the study of the Upavedas which included the study of warfare (Dhanur-veda), health (Ayur-veda), theatre (Gandharva-veda), time (Jyotish-shashtra), space (Vastu-shastra) and polity (Artha-shastra). At the end of the education, students were expected to pay their teacher’s fee before moving out of the teacher’s house. This is called guru-dakshina, a transaction fee, after which all obligations to the teacher were severed.